ABA FUNDAMENTALS: FORENSIC SCIENCE


ABAFS 432X648

PART OF THE ABA FUNDAMENTALS SERIES

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Table of Contents

Introduction

Chapter 1: Basic Considerations and History

The Development of Forensic Science

The First Forensic Scientists

The Coroner and the Medical Examiner

Duties of the Coroner/Medical Examiner

The Coroner/Medical Examiner In the Courtroom

Crime Lab Origins

The CSI Effect


Chapter 2: General Organization of Forensic Science

Criminalistics and Criminalists

Crime Lab Services


Chapter 3: Evidence: The Heart and Soul of Forensic Science

Locard’s Exchange Principle

Using Evidence

Evidence Classification

The Crime Scene

Evidence Handling

Crime Scene Reconstruction

Staged Crime Scenes

Search Warrants

Evidence Standards of Acceptance


Chapter 4: The Autopsy

History of the Autopsy

Forensic Autopsy Milestones

The Pathologist: Clinical versus Forensic

The Forensic Autopsy


Chapter 5: Identifying the Body

Why is Identification Important?

Basic Considerations

Getting Rid of the Body

Identifying the Corpse

Skeletal Remains

Facial Reconstruction

Photographic Comparisons and Age Progressions


Chapter 6: Time of Death

The Importance of the Time of Death

Determining the Time of Death

Putting It All Together


Chapter 7: Cause, Mechanism, and Manner of Death

The Cause and Mechanism of Death

The Five Manners of Death

The ME’s Determination

The ME’s Report


Chapter 8: Traumatic Injuries

Guns and Bullets

Sharp-Force Injuries

Blunt Force Trauma

Electrical Injuries

Bite Wounds

Rape Investigation


Chapter 9: Asphyxia

Suffocation

Strangulation

Toxic Chemicals

Drowning


Chapter 10: Blood and Other Body Fluids

The Characteristics of Blood

The ABO System

Blood and the Serologist

Paternity Testing

Other Bodily Fluids


Chapter 11: DNA

The Structure of DNA

DNA and Forensic Science

DNA Matching: A Numbers Game

Degraded DNA

Locating DNA

Testing Paternity

Familial DNA

Mitochondrial and Y-Chromosomal DNA

The CODIS System

Plant and Animal DNA


Chapter 12: Toxicology

What is a Poison?

Historical Perspective

The Modern Toxicologist

Biotransformation

Visible SIgns of Poisoning

Sample Collection

Toxicology and the Cause and Manner of Death

Toxicological Testing Procedures

Acute versus Chronic Poisoning

Common Drugs, Poisons, and Toxins


Chapter 13: Fingerprints

The History of Fingerprints

Anthropometry and Bertillonage

Ridge Patterns

Fingerprint Classification Systems

Locating and Collecting Fingerprints

Fingerprints and DNA

Altered Fingerprints

Glove Prints


Chapter 14: Blood Stains

Characteristics of Blood

Blood Spatter Patterns

Spatter Classification

Blood Spatters and Crime Scene Reconstruction


Chapter 15: Impression Evidence: Shoes, Tires, and Tools

Shoe Impression Evidence

Tire Impression Evidence

Tool Mark Evidence

Fabric Impressions


Chapter 16: Trace Evidence

Types of Trace Evidence

Hair

Fibers

Glass

Paint

Soils and Plants


Chapter 17: Firearm Examination

Weapon and Ammunition Components

Bullet and Shell Casing Examination

Gunshot Residues

Restoring Serial Numbers

National Ballistic Database Systems


Chapter 18: Arson Investigation

Fires and Explosions

Motives For Arson

Arson Investigation

Homicidal Fires

Explosions


Chapter 19: Questioned Documents

Handwriting

The Examination Process

Forgery

Altered Documents

Indented Writing

Paper and Ink

Typewriters and Photocopiers

Art Forgery


Chapter 20: Criminal Psychology

The Forensic Psychiatric Professional

Psychiatric Testing

Competence and Sanity

Lies and Deceptions

Serial and Multiple Offenders

The Psychopathology of Serial Offenders

Serial Offender Profiling

Trophies and Souvenirs

MO Versus Signature

Victimology

Geographic Profiling

Linking Criminals and Crime Scenes


A Few Final Words

Appendix: Forensic Science Timeline

© Douglas Lyle 2015